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Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837–1909) was an English poet, playwright, and novelist, known for his lyrical and controversial writing style that made him one of the most prominent figures in the Victorian era of literature. Swinburne's work is characterized by its passionate, often sensual, imagery and rhythms, as well as its exploration of taboo subjects and themes of death, love, and spirituality.

Born into an aristocratic family, Swinburne was educated at Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, though he did not earn a degree. His time at Oxford was significant in shaping his literary career, as he became associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of painters and poets who sought to return to the detail, intense colors, and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art.

Swinburne's poetry is noted for its technical mastery, particularly his use of intricate verse forms and his development of the 'Swinburnian stanza,' characterized by its use of varying line lengths and a complex rhyme scheme. His use of meter and rhythm was innovative and often mimicked the ebb and flow of waves, contributing to the musical quality of his poetry.

One of Swinburne's most famous works is "Atalanta in Calydon" (1865), a tragedy written in the form of classical Greek drama. This work is celebrated for its lyrical beauty and the masterful use of the chorus. Another notable work, "Poems and Ballads" (1866), caused a scandal upon its publication due to its exploration of taboo themes, including sadomasochism, death-worship, and lesbianism. The collection includes poems like "Anactoria" and "Dolores," which are marked by their intense eroticism and dark themes.

Swinburne was also known for his critical essays on literature, in which he expressed his views on poets such as Charles Baudelaire and his contemporaries. As a critic, he was insightful and often controversial, unafraid to express his strong opinions on various aspects of literature and culture.

Throughout his life, Swinburne courted controversy, not only through his writing but also through his eccentric lifestyle. His early works were especially notorious for their frank exploration of sexual and sadomasochistic themes, making him a divisive figure in Victorian literature.

Despite his controversial reputation, Swinburne's contribution to English literature is significant. He brought a new musicality to English verse and was a master of lyrical poetry. His exploration of intense emotional and often taboo themes paved the way for later poets and writers who sought to push the boundaries of what was acceptable in literature.

In conclusion, Algernon Charles Swinburne was a key figure in Victorian literature, known for his lyrical prowess, innovative use of form, and exploration of controversial themes. His poetry, with its intense emotional depth and technical mastery, has had a lasting impact on English literature, influencing many poets who followed him.

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