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James Ingram Merrill (1926–1995) was a sophisticated and influential American poet, whose work spans the middle to late 20th century. He is noted for his formal elegance, intertextual references, and a blend of autobiographical and imaginative elements.

Merrill came from a privileged background—the son of Charles E. Merrill, one of the founders of the Merrill Lynch investment firm—which allowed him the financial independence to dedicate his life to writing and the arts. His literary background is marked by a formidable education and early encouragement in his writing; he attended The Lawrenceville School, where he won the Poetry Prize, and later graduated from Amherst College.

Early influences on Merrill’s work included W. H. Auden (with whom he maintained a correspondence and friendship) and Wallace Stevens. His poetry is often associated with formalist or neo-formalist movements due to his use of traditional verse forms and his adept skill with meter and rhyme. However, his work is also known for its openness to avant-garde influences and his incorporation of elements from surrealism and symbolism.

Merrill's poetic oeuvre is extensive and varied. He published his first book of poems, "First Poems," in 1951, but he is perhaps best known for his epic poem "The Changing Light at Sandover," published in several volumes during the 1970s and 1980s. This ambitious work, which won the National Book Award for Poetry, is a mixture of supernatural narrative and personal reflection, resulting from séances held by Merrill and his partner David Jackson. It combines elements of autobiography, literary homage, and an eclectic spirituality, and it has been both celebrated for its inventive genius and debated for its idiosyncrasies.

Merrill's themes are as varied as his interests, which span from intimate portrayals of domestic life and relationships to grand cosmological musings. His poems often contemplate the nature of art, love, and the divine, weaving these together with a quiet wit and luminous intellect. While his poetry can be highly personal, it is never merely confessional; it instead works to elevate the personal to the level of myth or universal paradigm.

The influence of Merrill's poetry has been significant, particularly among poets who seek to combine formal skill with a rich, allusive poetics. His body of work represents a high-water mark for late 20th-century American verse, showcasing an artist capable of both classical precision and modern, sometimes experimental, narratives.

Throughout his career, Merrill received numerous honors for his literary work, including the Bollingen Prize, the National Book Critics Circle Award, and two National Book Awards. He was also awarded a Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his 1976 collection "Divine Comedies," which contains the first part of "The Changing Light at Sandover."

In conclusion, James Ingram Merrill's contribution to American poetry is characterized by its stylistic elegance, intellectual depth, and creative ambition. His legacy is that of a poet who seamlessly blended the personal with the poetic, the everyday with the metaphysical, and in doing so, he left a body of work that continues to inspire and challenge readers and writers alike.

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