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THE NIGHTINGALE, by             Poet Analysis     Poet's Biography


In "The Nightingale," Paul Verlaine encapsulates the essence of longing and memory through the metaphor of nature-a common Romantic trope but imbued here with a personal depth that renders it immediate and intimate. The poem begins with a striking image: "Like a clamorous flock of startled birds, / All my memories swoop upon me." The memories are not passive; they are active agents that descend upon the speaker, invasive and demanding attention. They settle "among the yellow foliage / Of my heart," a visceral image that posits emotion as something almost tangible, autumnal, and evocative of decline or decay.

The setting-described with "the purple foil of the waters of Regret"-suggests a mindscape rather than a landscape. The waters of regret aren't merely a backdrop; they are flowing "in melancholy wise," as if the regret is active, a living force that shapes the contours of memory and longing. This adds an additional layer of emotion to the poem; the speaker is not just ensnared by memories but is aware that these memories are tinged with an abiding sense of regret.

The memories' "horrid clamor" gradually subsides, becoming a single voice, "the voice hymning the Absent One." This is a poignant moment; amidst the cacophony of memories, it is the voice of the "bird that was my Earliest Love" that ultimately rings clear and resonant. This could be interpreted as the speaker's first experience of love or perhaps an idealized love that he mourns. Either way, this voice "sings still as on that earliest day," a testament to the enduring, haunting nature of our deepest emotional experiences.

The poem culminates in a night scene, where a "sad magnificence of a moon" rises in a "Summer night, heavy and melancholy." The moon, often symbolic of changeability and the feminine mystique, here represents a static, overwhelming sadness. The mood is "full of silence and obscurity," and the only actions are those of caressing wind, a "quivering tree," and a "weeping bird." Nature, in all its majesty and complexity, becomes a mirror for the intricate emotions that the speaker experiences-both the vast scope of his past memories and the acute focus of his present sorrow.

Ultimately, "The Nightingale" is a complex tapestry of emotion, where past and present collide in a vivid natural landscape that exists as much in the speaker's mind as it does in any physical realm. The poem, like the nightingale's song, serves both as a lament and as a haunting ode to the past, sung in the lonely hours of the present. Its intricate blend of emotional and natural imagery captures the ineffable experience of longing, making it an enduring and poignant piece in Verlaine's oeuvre.


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